By the end of the 1990s, experts of the Research and Production Enterprise "Realizatsiya Ecologicheskikh Tekhnologiy" (eng.: "Implementation of Ecological Technologies") accomplished the long-term development of the unique technology of producing humic substances through imitation of natural humification of plant wastes of various genesis, with a wide range of humic substan˝es in the output. The final product is a highly efficient and practically feasible humic (without carrier) fertilizer with microelements in the form of chelates. It has properties of a growth stimulant and an antistress agent and is registered under the trademark of Lignohumate«. The preparation contains not only high-molecular fractions typical of many industrial analogues, but also a number of low-molecular humic component salts as well as a wide range of macro- and microelements in forms digestible by plants, which determines its high biological activity.
The humic substances play the most significant role in the improvement of physical and chemical properties of soil, activation of the microflora, migration of nutrients and eventually, in the recreation of the flora and fauna. Today there is no doubt about it not only for scientists, but also for practical experts that deal with arable farming, biotechnology, and soil reclamation.
Nowadays there is an uprise of interest to humic fertilizers throughout the world. This is explained by the fact that there is an ongoing accumulation of data on the positive effect of humic substances on the growth and development of plants, as well as on the quality of agricultural products and soil fertility. For instance, in Russia the area where humic preparations are used amounts to more than 3 million ha.
Humic compounds, which are physiologically active substances, regulate and enhance metabolism in plants and soil. Humic substances have been found not only to increase the yield and weight of the fruit and speed up the ripening time, but also to improve the quality of products, increasing the content of sugars, vitamins and reducing the quantity of nitrates and heavy metals by 6-10 times.
They are not toxic, not cancerogenic, not mutagenic. Residual humates are not traced in plants, as they are quickly included into the metabolism.
Experts of NPO "Realizatsiya Ecologicheskikh Tekhnologiy" have developed brand new technical principles of obtaining concentrated preparations marketed under the trademark of Lignohumate«. The developed technology enables conditions for the accelerated humification of virtually any lignin-containing raw material with formation of a wide range of humic substances, both humic and fulvic acids.
Lignohumate« is a highly efficient and practically feasible (without carrier) humic fertilizer with microelements in the form of chelates, with properties of a growth stimulant and an antistress agent. Lignohumate« has a wide effect upon plants. Its properties are manifested in all basic cultivated crops.
Lignohumate« is applied:
Characteristics of Lignohumate«:
- to increase the yield of crops (depending on the crop and agricultural practice, by 10-25%);
- to increase the quality of agricultural products (wheat gluten by average 2-2.5%, sugar content in sugar beet, vitamin C in vegetables, sugar in grapes and fruits);
- to improve plant immunity;
- to enhance frost and drought resistance, mostly through strengthening the root system of plants;
- to increase the efficiency of processing seed grains along with protectants (raising seed germinability, enhancing suppression of pathogens, improving plant immunity);
- to relieve stress in the course of foliar treatment with pesticides and their complex tank mixtures (facilitates the growth and development of plants, relieves stress in the course of complex treatment, induces photosynthesis);
- to raise the efficiency of using mineral fertilizers (the ratio of using nitrogen and phosphorus by plants is increased; possible reduction of application rates by 20-30%).
- 100% soluble and therefore not causing nozzle clogging. Used in drip feed systems
- Raw material ľ lignosulfonate (product of wood processing).
- Consistency of the preparation's composition.
- High concentration of the active substance (90%).
- Besides humic acids (80-85%), the preparation also contains fulvic acids (15-20%).
Fulvic acids are known from research to be more biologically active (there is a more vivid stimulating effect both on plants and soil microflora as compared with humic acids).
- Thanks to a more active compound of fulvic acids and microelements, accelerated absorption and fixation by plants takes place.
- High content of sulphur in organic bond form (more than 3%).
State registration of the preparation
Lignohumate« has been registered in the Russian Federation as an agrichemical since 1999 (registration No. 0045-06-204-015-0-0-0-1). Besides, Lignohumate« is applied in a number of European countries, since it is registered as per EU standards in the Czech Republic and Slovakia, in Ukraine, the Republic of Moldova, Republic of Belarus. It is admitted for use in the Republic of Kazakhstan. Necessary steps are being taken to register the preparation in North America, Vietnam, UAE. In Germany the preparation is recommended for use as a fertilizer for ecological agriculture.
The efficiency of the preparation has been confirmed by consumer feedback and hundreds of official trials in Russia and abroad. The most extensive trials took place in the following research institutions:
- Kuban State Agricultural University;
- Krasnodar Agricultural Research Institute named after P.P.Lukyanenko;
- North-Caucasus Sugar and Sugar Beet Research Institute;
- Stavropol State Agricultural University;
- St. Petersburg State Agricultural University;
- Pskov Agricultural Research Institute;
- Moscow Agricultural Academy named after K.A. Timiryazev;
- Federal State Agrochemical Service Centre "Kaliningradsky";
- Federal State Agrochemical Service Centre "Stavropolsky";
- Federal State Agrochemical Service Centre "Leningradsky";
- Federal State Agrochemical Service Centre "Novgorodsky";
- Federal State Centre "BryanskAgrokhimRadiologiya";
- Potato Experimental Institute, town of Havlíčkův Brod, Czech Republic;
- Central Control and Experimental Institute, city of Brno, Czech Republic;
- American Agricultural University of the State of Illinois;
- Ecologistics Research Services, Canada;
- Soil and Agricultural Chemistry Institute named after A.R. Dimo, city of Chisinau, Moldova;
- Maize and Sorghum Research Institute, city of Chisinau, Moldova;
- Fruit Farming Research Institute, city of Chisinau, Moldova;
- National Institute of Vine Culture and Winemaking, city of Chisinau;
- Institute of Vine Culture and Winemaking named after V.E. Tairov, city of Odessa, Ukraine;
- Soil and Agricultural Chemistry Institute, city of Minsk, Belarus.
Main Lignohumate« labels
All Lignohumate« labels for agricultural use are produced on the sodium or potassium basis as per TU (Technical Specifications) 2431-007-71452208-05. Total 30 modifications and trademarks have been registered. The following main labels are suggested for professional use:
||powdered product with microelements;
||20% aqueous solution;
||20% aqueous solution with microelements;
||12% aqueous solution;
||12% aqueous solution with microelements;
||12% aqueous solution of the organic mineral fertilizer;
||12% aqueous solution of the organic mineral fertilizer with microelements;
||12% aqueous solution of iron chelate;
Lignohumate« is to be used in agriculture as an independent fertilizer or in combination with mineral fertilizers, as an antistress agent when using pesticides.
Main areas and methods of application
Lignohumate« is used for combined treatment of agricultural plants, from planting stock or seed grain treatment to subsequent treatment of growing plants. Also effective is root watering of plants if this is done in line with the appropriate cultivation technology. Due to 100% solubility of all Lignohumate modifications, it can be used in drop irrigation systems both for open-ground and indoor cultivation. Lignohumate« can be used trouble-free with all main types of sprayers including small and extra-small ones.
Preparation of working solutions
Dry Lignohumate« modifications are quite easily and totally soluble even in cold water. Liquid concentrated modifications of the preparation can precipitate after a long storage period, which is why it is recommended the canister be shaken well before use. Application of the preparation solution does not require its pre-filtration. Concentrated agent solutions have the alkaline reaction value ═ 9 - 9.5. Therefore it is expedient to add the preparation directly into the working solution or into the service tank. The Lignohumate« working concentration is 0.1-0.005%. At the same time adding the agent into the tank where pH is less than 5.5 is unacceptable. If it happens, flocculent precipitate of insoluble humic acids may appear. Using Lignohumate« solutions with a concentration over 1% can lead to a temporary inhibition of plants. In case of such overdose of the agent, it is necessary to water plants or spray them with clean water.
Lignohumate« is nonflammable and blastproof, referred to Hazard Class 4 as per GOST 12.1.007 (marginally hazardous substance), non-toxic for man, animals, plants, and therefore does not require any precaution in the application. This highlights it as compared to many preparations of similar effect.
In case of Lignohumate contact with:
- eyes - it can entail local irritation;
- skin - slight redness is possible;
- airway - it can cause dryness in the windpipe.
In case of ingesting the preparation, a massive gastric lavage by light-rose solution of potassium permanganate must be carried out to make the person vomit. After the lavage, the patient is recommended to drink half a glass of water with 2-3 tablespoonfuls of activated carbon or poliphepan. If case of skin contact, the contaminated spot is to be thoroughly washed with water and soap.
Transport and storage
The container with fertilizers is to be stored in a dry place out of reach of children and animals, separately from food products at the temperature not less than -10 C for liquid and not less than -200 C for dry Lignohumate« modifications. Guaranteed storage life is 5 years. Lignohumate's shelf-life is not limited. Used bags and containers for retail sails are to be disposed as domestic garbage.
In the course of transport and storage of liquid Lignohumate« labels, it is recommended plastic canisters be stored in not more than 2 rows under TU No. 2297-001-47990820-2004.
Combination with other agents
Lignohumate« can be applied in a mixture with most fertilizers and protectors, biological preparations and growth regulators. In most cases, Lignohumate« enhances the effects of fertilizers and pesticides in whose combination it is applied. To optimize plant treatment costs, it is recommended Lignohumate« be applied in a mixture with protectants and soluble fertilizers a part of scheduled treatment operations. At the same time adding Lignohumate in the service tank where pH is less than 5.5 is unacceptable.
Lignohumate« combination with pesticides
The efficiency of pesticides is based on their anti-disease, anti-weed and anti-pests action. On the other hand, due to their toxic action most pesticide agents can entail a lower production capacity of the basic crop that they were designed to protect. This can be balanced by chemicals with stress-relieving properties. Lignohumate« is one of the most efficient agents of this sort. Combined application of Lignohumate« with fungicides facilitates a more effective treatment owing to the fact that besides its antistress properties, Lignohumate« also has a slight fungicidal action and good adhesive qualities. Lignohumate« is the most effective when applied for seed treatment together with protectants on crops and pulse crops. Practice shows that Lignohumate« brings a 20 to -50% increase in the inhibition of phytopathogenes, depending on the seed infestation level. In plant foliar dressing, Lignohumate« is also well-combined with fungicidal agents and besides contributing to the action of the pesticide, it also boosts the immune system of the plants. This leads to an increased natural resistance to disease. Application of Lignohumate« together with plant protectants helps to relieve stress of plants under pesticides, which is particularly the case when strong pesticides or combined multi-agent solutions are used. Most obvious these qualities are when used on such crops as sugar beet, flax and corn. Relief of stress factors on the crops leads to increased crop yield and a better quality of the final product.
Lignohumate« application together with biological preparations
Application of Lignohumate« together with biological preparations enhances the latter's effect. Nitrogen-collecting bacteria are particularly responsive to such combined application. Tests have shown that Lignohumate treatment of pulse-crop seeds works best when combined with biological preparations on the basis of nitrogen collecting symbion bacteria. Good results are yielded by the combination of Lignohumate« with such preparations as risotorphine, risobacterine, risobact. Also combination of Lignohumate with fungicidal bio-preparations is possible. In this case the action of such preparations is significantly intensified.
Currently, a number of companies in Russia and in other countries use Lignohumate« to produce commercial bio-preparations as a component increasing their efficiency and facilitating the preservation of biological strains.
Lignohumate« combination with mineral fertilizers
This agricultural technique helps to reduce total soil dressing costs and increase the efficiency of the main elements of mineral nutrition. This occurs due to intensified natural depletion of nutrients by plants, to increased micro-biological activity in the soil, and to the fact that hardly consumable forms of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium are turned into the ones that are easily consumable by plants. As a result, application rates of mineral fertilizers can be reduced by 10 - -30 % when applied together with Lignohumate« depending on soil fertility, the crop treated and consumption of Lignohumate«.
Years of testing and innovations have resulted in the method of combined application of Lignohumate« and mineral fertilizers developing into a full-scale technology of production of new modifications ľ the so called humated organic-mineral fertilizers (HOMF). Such fertilizers are a new step forward in the development of the fertilizer application system. To date all the main types of organic-mineral fertilizers humated by Lignohumate« have state registration (these are HOMF based carbamide, ammophos, azophoska superphosphate, ecophoska, liquid concentrated fertilizers). Smaller quantities of these are produced at our company's facilities, while larger consignments are planned to be made at mineral fertilizer factories or using dedicated equipment, e.g. modified bulk blending installations.
Purpose: Treatment of cereal seeds (wheat, barley, rye, oats, rice) with Lignohumate« enables to increase seed germinability and germinative energy by 4-10%, total and tilling capacity. Owing to its high stimulating effect, such seed treatment results in stronger plant vegetation and quicker growth of the root system, which increases drought tolerance of plants and improves the conditions of wintering survival of winter crops. Seed treatment results in earlier sprouts; the stimulating effect is evident for a month.
Pre-treatment is of great significance not only for cereals, but for sunflower, buckwheat, maize, soya, pea, rape as well. The effect of Lignohumate« on these crops is similar to the above for cereals.
Pre-treatment of vegetable and vine seeds along with treatment of seedlings is also of great importance. However, due to wide distribution of encrusted and pelleted seeds, treatment is impossible in most cases. In view of this, foliar treatment of plants in the vegetation time is important, especially at early development stages. On the other hand, a number of firms and companies pelleting seeds plan to include Lignohumate« into pelleting mixtures.
Seed treatment methods: Seeds are treated at dedicated installations through slurry dressing. Machines of ¤Đ-10, ¤Đ-10╠, ¤Đě-5, "Mobitox" models, etc. are used here. Solution consumption for seed treatment is 10 litres per one ton of seeds. Lignohumate« is added into the solution last. It is recommended to apply the working solution on the day of its production. Due to adhesive capacity of Lignohumate«, it facilitates a better treatment of seeds. The average Lignohumate« consumption per 1 ton of various crop seeds is 100-150 g of dry modification (A-AM) and 0.4-0.75 l of liquid modifications (┴-┴╠).
Seed storage: Seeds treated with Lignohumate« by the method of slurry dressing are to be stored in accordance with norms and regulations for treated seed material, without any limitations or amendments.
Treatment of vegetating plants
Purpose: Foliar dressing with Lignohumate« boosts the growth and development of plants, contributes to the enhancement of photosynthesis in the plant leaves. Combined foliar dressing enables to increase the crop yield and quality of crop plants. There is an increase of gluten content and the number of grains in the cereal heads. There is an increase in the growth and development of sugar beet, shorter vegetation period, and an increase of the crop yield and sugar content in root crops. When treated with Lignohumate« all types of cultivated plants show shorter growth times and higher uniformity of crop growth and ripening rates.
Besides its explicit stimulating effect, application of Lignohumate« can also help to relieve stress in plants caused by pesticide treatment. In case of foliar dressing signs of the stimulation appear in a few hours, the growth-enhancement effect retains for 2 months. Vegetation dressing is necessary to increase and strengthen the enhancement effect of seed treatment (cereals). Yet, even a single treatment of vegetation with Lignohumate« can play a significant role.
Foliar dressing is crucial for vegetables and fruits, sugar beet and maize. Most significant is the time of treatment, as foliar dressings of a plant carried out during important phases of its physiological development have a stronger effect.
One of the main elements of the technology of growing winter wheat is treatment of plants, which have just wintered through. Such treatment is performed through spraying the Lignohumate« solution over the plants together with nitrogenous dressing. This helps to strengthen depressed and injured plants, as well as to facilitate their further growth and development.
Foliar dressing of winter wheat at the grain ripening phase contributes to the increase of gluten content.
The working Lignohumate« solution is prepared in keeping with the required concentration, considering the above described general requirements to dilution.
While mixing Lignohumate« with concentrated pesticides in the mother solution, it is recommended to dissolve it first and only then add all other agents. Most practical is to avoid adding Lignohumate« to the mother solution and instead dissolve it already in the working solution of the service tank.
Standard boom sprayers and other types of sprayers are used: ╬¤ -2000, ╬¤ -2000-2-01 for cereals, ╬╠¤-601, OM-630-2, ╬¤ -2000-2-01, ╬¤ě-15 for flax, ╬╠¤-601, OM-630-2, ╬¤-2000-2-01 for sugar beet, sprinkler systems, etc. One can use low-capacity sprays of the "╚˛ű°ÓÝŕÓ" type and aerial treatment. Treatment must be carried out in dry weather, in mornings or evenings; windy conditions are unacceptable.
To maximize the effect on multiple plants, it is recommended to conduct up to 2-3 foliar treatments with Lignohumate«. Lignohumate« is applied on cereals in the tillering, booting and ripening phases, on sugar beet in phases 2 and -3 of regular leaves and before their closing in a row, a few treatment procedures are required on potatoes starting with sprouts, before and after blossoming, etc.
As a rule, the highest efficiency is gained with treatment at early development stages of plants (tillering phase of cereals, phases 2 and -3 of beet regular leaves, flax "fishbone" phase, etc.). Subsequent applications retain and enhance the effects.
Use in drip feed systems
Purpose: Lignohumate« is used in drip feed systems for open or frame area to boost and develop the plant root system and the entire plant. The use of Lignohumate« facilitates an increase of the ratio of assimilation of nutrients from fertilizers and soil. Owing to the stimulating effect on the development of the root system, Lignohumate« increases its intake capacity and improves drought tolerance of plants.
In a frame area Lignohumate« is especially efficient in drip feed systems along with low-capacity techniques of growing vegetables. The use of Lignohumate« in a frame area facilitates protection of plants against a temporary drop of temperature in the greenhouse.
Lignohumate« is effectively used on open ground to boost plant growth and optimize mineral nutrition, when combined with dressings of fully soluble mineral fertilizers like "└ŕÔÓŔÝ", "╩ňýŔÓ", etc. In soil Lignohumate« facilitates the development of nitrogen-collecting bacteria, which extract nitrogen from the air and saturate the soil in the form easily consumable by plants. On open ground Lignohumate« is applied in drip feed systems and foliar dressing during the most important physiological phases of plant development.
In a frame area: Lignohumate« is applied in drip feed systems by adding it into service tanks (with pure water or mineral fertilizers with solution pH of not less than 5.5).
Lignohumate« is supplied with scheduled sprinkling and dressing at the stipulated time as per recommendations. Lignohumate« is a fully soluble preparation without carrier, which allows using it in any drip feed systems. It is recommended Lignohumate« be applied once in 10 days in the sprinkling water, with the last and second to last sprinkling.
On open ground: In drip feed systems Lignohumate« is applied together with mineral dressings, added into the service tank for fertilizers (except for fertilizers free of calcium). Lignohumate and fertilizers are supplied as a dressing at the end of the scheduled sprinkling. The use of Lignohumate« together with fertilizers increases the ratio of consumption of mineral fertilizers by plants.